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Leonardo Myers
Leonardo Myers

Salient Features Of The Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program Carp __FULL__

The agrarian reform is part of the long history of attempts of land reform in the Philippines.[3] The law was outlined by former President Corazon C. Aquino through Presidential Proclamation 131 and Executive Order 229 on June 22, 1987,[4] and it was enacted by the 8th Congress of the Philippines and signed by Aquino on June 10, 1988. In 1998, which was the year that it was scheduled to be completed, the Congress enacted Republic Act No. 8532 [5] to allocate additional funds for the program and extending the automatic appropriation of ill-gotten wealth recovered by the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG) for CARP until the year 2008.[6]

Salient Features Of The Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program Carp

The Program Beneficiaries Development is a support service delivery component of CARP. It aims to aid the agrarian reform beneficiaries by providing them necessary support services to make their lands more productive, and enable them to venture in income generating livelihood projects in accordance to Section 14 of RA 9700(Section 37 of RA 6657 as amended) .[11] Under the support service delivery programs, the Presidential Agrarian Reform Council(PARC) ensures that agrarian reform beneficiaries are provided with support services such as land surveys and tilting, construction of infrastructures, marketing and production assistance, credit and training.[8]

Every administration has declared agrarian reform acentrepiece programme for growth and development, yet it has received onlyscanty resources from government. The fund for land acquisition and distribution(LAD) has always been inadequate, yet LAD is a major component by which thesuccess of agrarian reform is measured. Most of the funding for the supportservices component of the programme comes from Overseas Development Assistance(ODA).

In the end, a compromise version of the CARL emerged. Much ofthe compromise was in favour of the landowners, especially on their rights toretention and just compensation. However, the landowners complained that the lawwas harsh and confiscatory, while the militant groups denounced it aspro-landowner and bogus. Nevertheless, the CARL was the best that could be hadunder those difficult times and circumstances. This is perhaps the reason whythe agrarian reform programme has been viewed with scepticism untiltoday.

Source: "Policy issues affecting the agrarianreform programme in the Philippines" a PowerPoint presentation by Arsenio D.Basilican at the FAO - TSARRD workshop, Davao City, Philippines, in October2002.

The remaining few years of CARP implementation find thegovernment moving into the most problematic phase of the programme. Thegovernment now has to go into sectors where landowner resistance is expected tobe strong. The major sectors include private agricultural lands between 5 and 25ha, large sugar and coconut farms, and the highly profitable commercial farms.The DAR is considering a scheme that would speed up the process of effectingland transfer, blend well with existing arrangements, and capitalize on thebenefits gained and lessons learned from the CARP. In order to defuse landownerresistance, improve farmers' ability to pay, and increase the incentive forprivate sector participation, one evolving strategy for promoting agrarianreform is based on farmer - landowner negotiation in the land acquisition phaseand community - state partnership in the planning, provision and management ofproductive investments and critical support services. This broad approach isconsistent with the government's policy, thrusts and strategies of usingmarket-based or demand-driven mechanisms and participatory processes to attainthe objective of rural development.

THE administration of President Ferdinand \"Bongbong\" Marcos Jr. was drafting measures to assist agrarian reform beneficiaries (ARB), Malaca\u00f1ang said on Friday.\r\r\"The President and his Cabinet discuss how the government can aid agrarian reform beneficiaries by implementing projects and programs such as crafting a proposed bill on the condonation of payments for the amortization fees and interests on ARB loans and providing legal help for land disputes,\" the Office of the President announced in a Facebook post.\r\rMarcos, in his first State of the Nation Address, committed to continue implementing agricultural reform programs during his term, among them a one-year freeze on the land amortization and interest payment by ARBs.\r\r\"A moratorium will give the farmers the ability to channel their resources in developing their farms, maximizing their capacity to produce and propel the growth of our economy,\" he said.\r\rThe President also urged Congress to pass a law that would free the ARBs from their debts.\r\r\"In this law, the loans of agrarian reform beneficiaries with unpaid amortization and interest shall be condoned. The law aims to erase the unpaid debts of our farmers who are beneficiaries of agrarian reform. Agrarian reform beneficiaries who are still to receive their awarded land under the comprehensive agrarian reform program shall receive it without any obligation to pay any amortization,\" Marcos said.\r\rMarcos, concurrently also the Agriculture secretary, was considering granting modern farm equipment to ARB as well.\r\rDA requests P10M from Agrarian Reform Fund\r\rAgrarian Reform Secretary Conrado Estrella 3rd has asked the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) to release P10 million from the Agrarian Reform Fund.\r\rEstrella said his office has coordinated with the DBM for the release of the fund, of which P8.75 million will be used to finance the development and sustainability program for ARB.\r\rHe added that 90 percent of the P10 million budget will be allocated for the delivery of support services in line with Marcos' directive to help enhance the capacity of farmers to produce.\r\rEstrella also recognized the need to address the concerns of former landowners as he set aside P1 million of the requested fund for compensation for their properties that were placed under the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program.\r\rEstrella allotted the remaining P250,000 for the welfare of DAR employees.\r\rThe DAR has launched its 10th Farm Business School in Sorsogon to help farmer-beneficiaries become farmer entrepreneurs by boosting their entrepreneurial skills.\r\r

"The President and his Cabinet discuss how the government can aid agrarian reform beneficiaries by implementing projects and programs such as crafting a proposed bill on the condonation of payments for the amortization fees and interests on ARB loans and providing legal help for land disputes," the Office of the President announced in a Facebook post.

Affected parties and other interest groups. The target groups of the land tenure improvement component of the agrarian reform program are the tenants and their landlords under the coverage of PD 2, PD 27, and other succeeding policies. The non-target groups include such interest groups as mass media, religious and civic organizations, political parties, and the like.

In this paper, we have examined agrarian reform as experienced in the Philippines under martial law. We have used sensemaking as the point of departure to enhance understanding. We can conclude, from the evidence gathered, that organizational decision-making related to agrarian reform became fragmented as a result of martial law. More to the point, sensemaking requires a social context that was disrupted because decision makers were isolated one from another. The president made decisions unilaterally, with limited input from close advisors who, for the most part, made intuitive suggestions. The personal identity of the resulting groups formed as the process proceeded. However, salient cues drawn from the environment and the ability to make retrospective judgments would have been richer had others been included in the interpretation process and their observations been considered. There is little doubt in our minds that the changing personal identity of the president and the enactment of his inner circle influenced the outcome of agrarian reform. We can only speculate about whether the sensemaking of the president and his key leaders yielded plausible explanations for the direction that agrarian reform ultimately took.

It was determined from this study that experiences of the Philippine government under martial law were amenable to all of the elements of sensemaking (Weick, 1995; 2001), namely: a) social context, b) personal identity, c) retrospect, d) salient cues, e) ongoing projects, f) plausibility, and g) enactment. While the experience of agrarian reform under the ARP was unique to the Philippines, the sensemaking experience common to all other organizations were present. Nuances, of course, varied from other institutions because of the behavior of President Marcos and the results of his outlook.

To aggravate the problem, rather than acquire idle, abandoned or unexploited lands, many corporations encroached on farms already cultivated by tenants, small farmer-settlers and owner-cultivators. In effect, the productivity-oriented goals of corporate farming came in conflict with the equity-oriented goals of the agrarian reform program. Thus, rural poverty incidence rose from 55.6% in 1971 to 63.7% in 1985 while the number of landless rural workers rose from 47% of the total population in 1975 to 50% in 1985. At the same time, rice production diminished by 39% between 1970 and 1981 due to the high cost of production (Ibid., 412).

Land ownership was the hallmark of the Marcos agrarian reform program. PD 27 made peasants owners of the land they tilled for previous tenurial arrangements allowed only sharecropping and leasehold. However, PD 27 covered only 14% of all agricultural lands and only 17% of all farmworkers. The 5 hectares retention limit deprived 55% of tenants in rice and corn lands to own lands. And that the biggest resistance to reform came from the small landowners. Moreover, the government justified the non-inclusion of other crops as: one, due to international commitments and two, would have adverse effect on productivity.


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